The other way to combine an interpreter and a compiler is a mixed-mode execution engine. Here, we "mix" two "modes" of implementing the same language together, i.e. an interpreter for X and a JIT compiler from X to Y. (So, the difference here is that in the above case, we had multiple "stages" with the compiler compiling the program and then feeding the result into the interpreter, here we have the two working side-by-side on the same language.) Code that has been compiled by a compiler tends to run faster than code that is executed by an interpreter, but actually compiling the code first takes time (and particularly, if you want to heavily optimize the code to run really fast, it takes a lot of time). So, to bridge this time when the JIT compiler is busy compiling the code, the interpreter can already start running the code, and once the JIT is finished compiling, we can switch execution over to the compiled code. This means that we get both the best possible performance of the compiled code, but we don't have to wait for the compilation to finish, and our application starts running straight away (although not as fast as could be).